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The ABCs of DNA — Chromosomes

The ABCs of DNA — Chromosomes

  What is a Chromosome?   When the very long polymeric molecule of DNA is wound around a protein called a histone into a thread like strand, it is called a chromosome. The histone not only supports the DNA strand, but on occasion it can control DNA expression by folding the DNA over a particular gene, physically blocking access to the gene and preventing it from being ‘read’ or transcribed.The DNA of eukaryotes and archae exists as chromosomes. Not … Read entire article »

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The ABCs of DNA — The Cell

The ABCs of DNA — The Cell

What is a Cell? The simplest organisms are single-celled creatures such as bacteria and algae while more complex organisms, such as humans and trees, are comprised of many cells with specialized functions. Cells consist of membrane bound collections of DNA, proteins, sugars and cytosol –the jelly-like liquid inside the cell. The semi-porous cell membrane controls what enters and exits the cell. Scientists split cells into two main types: prokaryotic cells, such as those comprising bacteria and … Read entire article »

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The ABCs of DNA — Part 2

The ABCs of DNA — Part 2

DNA Structure Nuclear DNA molecules consist of a string of ring-shaped sugar molecules attached to a phosphate backbone on one side forming the sides of the twisted-ladder-like structure and one of the four DNA bases on the other. As the name deoxyribo suggests, the ring-shaped 5-carbon sugar on nuclear DNA has lost an oxygen molecule. There are four bases* that comprise the DNA code: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). The arrangement of … Read entire article »

Filed under: The Basics